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Jackrabbit sits in tall grass - Chema Domenach

Photo: Chema Domenech

Hill Country Wildlife

The Hill Country is an incredibly ecologically diverse landscape that is home to native species found nowhere else in the world. Land stewardship, protection of open space and thriving populations of wildlife go hand-in-hand — healthy populations of native wildlife demonstrate that your land is part of a functioning ecosystem. Documents and links on this page provide information on native Hill Country wildlife species and managing land for wildlife.

Axis Deer Control Project

Axis deer are an exotic species that were introduced from India to the Texas Hill Country in the 1930s. Since their introduction, this species has proliferated in several portions of the Hill Country, adversely impacting native wildlife, agricultural production, and riparian, or creek-side, habitat. The Hill Country Alliance is involved in an Axis Deer Control Project serving Gillespie County. The goal of the Axis Deer Control Project is to raise awareness about the impacts of free-ranging Axis deer, recognize land stewards for their efforts to control this exotic species, and support research that will improve management.

2/2/21 Workshop: Axis Deer in the Texas Hill Country

Axis Deer Impacts

White-Tailed Deer Competition

Exotic species such as Axis deer can out-compete native white-tailed deer because of several traits. Axis are able to shift their diet to grasses, once they have eaten desirable forbs and browse. White-tailed deer, however, cannot switch their diet preference, and will eventually suffer from malnutrition if grass is the only available vegetation.

Texas Tech University Ph.D. student, Matthew Buchholz, adds that Axis deer are also physically larger and more aggressive than native white-tailed deer. They can browse on their hind legs between 6 – 7 feet and, when in herds that can exceed 150 animals, may physically displace white-tailed deer and other animals from optimal habitat and food sources.

Agricultural Losses

High-fencing can be cost-prohibitive for some landowners and they are seeing losses with grain crops such as corn, milo, and Kline grass, as well as cereal crops such as wheat and oats.

During a recent drought, Peggy Sechrist recalls watching a herd of approximately 75 Axis deer migrating up and down the Pedernales River and into her pastures. “We watched the Axis compete with our cattle for grass and eventually we destocked our livestock in order to save our soil health while we strategized a plan to decrease Axis numbers.”

Riparian Area Degradation

Free-ranging Axis deer prefer riparian habitat along rivers and their tributary creeks. When riparian areas are characterized with a diversity and abundance of deep-rooted, native plants, they provide a variety of values such as flood mitigation, erosion control, fish and wildlife habitat, and improved water quality.

Along some stretches of the Pedernales, Guadalupe, and Llano Rivers, free-ranging Axis deer are denuding riparian vegetation: native switchgrass and eastern gamagrass; oak, pecan, sumac, persimmon, and cedar elm trees; and a variety of sedges. When riparian vegetation is excessively removed—whether from free-ranging Axis deer, mowing to the water’s edge, or continuous grazing—these areas no longer function properly to provide the values we all seek.

Unlike white-tailed deer, which have a set hunting season, Axis deer may be hunted year-round with a hunting license; they may also be trapped.

Helpful Links & Additional Information

Recent Wildlife News

Axis deer had overrun the Hill Country. The winter storm devastated them.

LEARN MORE: You can learn more about ongoing efforts related to the Axis Deer Control Project here.  The spotted fawn was leaning against the screen door of Daniel Oppenheimer’s back porch near Luckenbach. Oppenheimer found it when he ventured outside on the first morning of last week’s record freeze. The fawn had died in the night.…

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Axis deer management project underway in Hill Country

Axis deer are an exotic game species first introduced in the Texas Hill Country in the 1930s. Since then, the population has grown exponentially, leading to groups launching an Axis Deer Control project. There are currently more than 6,000 free-range Axis deer in Texas, according to data from the Texas Invasive Species Institute. Read more from…

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Texas Parks and Wildlife honors Black conservation heroes, past and present

Though often unheralded in their own times, Black contributions to conservation, parks, outdoor recreation and more are significant and will be celebrated throughout February’s Black History Month programs from the Texas Parks and Wildlife Department. Park rangers from all over Texas, including the Buffalo Soldier Heritage Outreach Program and the Texas Outdoor Family staff, will debut…

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This land is our land

Gabe Vasquez first visited New Mexico when he was 8 years old, during a fishing trip to the Rio Grande with his father and older brother. They traveled from their home just south of the border in Ciudad Juárez and planned to camp in state parks along the river. Even now, Vasquez recalls the air of excitement…

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